Spine Fusion SurgerySpine fusion surgery is usually recommended for patients experiencing severe and unmanageable back pain or immobility of the spine due to disc degeneration diseases, inherent spinal disorders such as scoliosis, or consequence from injury.

Surgery consists of different steps depending on various options. The ultimate goal in any case is to fuse two unstable, fractured, or otherwise faulty vertebrae together. This fusion stabilizes motion to reduce or completely eradicate pain and restore strength and movement.

The surgery is invasive and takes several hours. There are two main types of spine fusion surgery:

  • Posterolateral spine fusion: Bone is grafted and placed between the transverse processes of the vertebrae through fixation of pedicle screws. In this way, a fusion of two vertebrae requires the use of four screws connected by two perpendicular rods.
  • Interbody spine fusion: Bone is grafted and inserted in place of the entire disc between vertebrae. Disc replacement can also be done with titanium or plastic to avoid bone graft or in situations where a graft would be inadequate.


A 360 degree spine fusion surgery meshes interbody and posterolateral spine fusion methods for a more comprehensive surgical solution.

In cases where a bone graft is necessary, an autograft will graft bone from the patient, whereas an allograft will take bone from a donor or from the bone bank, depending on resources and compatibility.